1613 - Two Row Wampum Treaty between the Haudenosaunee and Dutch, establishing a basis for Indigeno

The Two Row Wampum Treaty was the first treaty between the Haudenosaunee and European settlers. It was made with the Dutch in 1613. The agreement outlines a mutual, three-part commitment to friendship, peace between peoples, and living in parallel forever (as long as the grass is green, as long as the rivers flow downhill and as long as the sun rises in the east and sets in the west). Throughout the years, the Haudenosaunee have sought to honor this mutual vision and have increasingly emphasized that ecological stewardship is a fundamental prerequisite for this continuing friendship.

- Syracuse Peace Council

Digging Deeper

Teacher resources: We Are All Treaty People teacher training materials at OISE

"Many people think of treaty rights as “special” indigenous rights however, all people living in Canada are treaty people with their own set of rights and responsibilities.Treaties are a foundational part of Canadian society. Every road, house, building or business that exists today in a treaty area was made possible because of a treaty.The existence of treaties is proof that the first settlers of what is now Canada respected First Nations as sovereign people and negotiated Nation to Nation.By understanding the colonial history of Canada we can renew our relationships with each other and move towards meaningful reconciliation." OISE

Office of the Treaty Commissioner:

a website with multimedia resources, information, events, news and more about treaties and treaty education in Canada. http://www.otc.ca

High School Resources

Story of the Two Row Wampum

Educational video, with reenactments, historical context, and storytelling.

Syracuse Peace Council

Video Resources: Digital Wampum

"The Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) are embarking on an historic project about the 500-year history of the Iroquois, their relationship with Europe and America and their prophesies that, if heard, can help us navigate the oncoming changes due to climate change. This series of short films creates the space for the Iroquois to tell their story as they strive to uphold the traditions and the legacy of their people while also protecting the central tenents of their people and their relationship and care for the Earth." Digital Wampum

Junior High School Resources

The Peacemaker Story: Traditional story of the Haudenosaunee treaty that first established the five nations, or Haudenosaunee Confederacy.

We Are All Treaty People


Maurice Switzer,

Illustrated by Herbert Charley

Grade 6-10

Video reading of book via

Anishinabek Nation Youtube

Elementary School Resources

Book: Teaching Treaties in the Classroom: A treaty resource guide for kindergarten to grade 6

Hiawatha and the Peacemaker

Robbie Robertson, Illustrated by David Shannon

- Age 5-10

Mohawk story of how Hiawatha helped translate the peacemaker's message for unity for the five warring Iroquois Nations - inspiring the authors of the U.S. Constitution.

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