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1869 - HBC sells back land to British Crown who gives it to new government of Canada. The great herds of bison on the plains are gone.


Hudson's Bay Company, sells what was known as "Rupert's Land," which consisted of eight million square kilometres, or about a quarter of the continent ( the prairies, parts of northern Quebec, northern Ontario, and Nunavut) to the Government of Canada under pressure from the British Crown.  The sale did not acknowledge the existence of the First Nations, Metis and Inuit people living on those lands.  - Canada, A People's History


George Brown, editor of The Globe and a Father of Confederation, described it as "the vast and fertile territory which is our birthright - and which no power on earth can prevent us occupying." 


The fur trade had dwindled, due to over hunting and disease, and HBC sold the land for 1.5 million dollars. By 1868, there are no longer any great herds of Bison on the plains of north America.   


-The Peace-Athabasca Delta: Portrait of an Ecosystem



“The buffalo crossed many different areas and functions, and it was utilized in many ways. It was used in ceremonies, as well as to make tipi covers that provided homes for people, utensils, shields, weapons and parts were used for sewing with the sinew.” 

S. Neyooxet Greymorning​

Digging Deeper


Article: The history of Bison and Buffalo in relation to Native Americans, written from an


American perspective: Genocide By Other Means: U.S. Army Slaughtered Buffalo in Plains Indian Wars, The buffalo and the Indians have always had a symbiotic relationship with honour and blessings. Indian Country Today






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