The colours used on this page should match the colours used on the paper timeline you worked on in your class!

  • 2016 -Daniels Decision confirms that Métis and non-status Indians are ‘Indians’ under s. 91(24) of the Constitution

  • 2015 - Jordan's Principle passes, declares that provincial and federal governments must not delay medical care to Indigenous children while determining who must pay for said care.  

  • 2015 - Contemporary Indigenous Activism: Indigenous Rising & NoDAPL

  • 2013 - RCMP released "Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview"

  • 2012 - Idle no more, a protest movement evolves around Indigenous Ways of Knowing rooted in                                                                               Indigenous Sovereignty to protect water, air, land and all creation for future generations

  • 2009 - Sisters in Spirit releases final report, bringing much needed attention to violence against                                                                             Indigenous women and girls

  • 2008 - Prime Minister Harper apologizes to residential school survivors

  • 2008 - Truth and Reconciliation Commission begins

  • 2003 - First Nations elder Josephine Mandamin and a group of Anishinaabe Women and Men came together in effort to raise awareness of the water issue by walking the perimeter of the Great Lakes

  • 2001 - Canadian Government begins negotiations with the Anglican, Catholic, United and Presbyterian churches to design a compensation plan for Residential School Survivors. The government agrees to pay 70% of settlements to former students.

  • 2000 - Indigenous children are over-represented in foster care, prompting some to label this epidemic as a "Millennium Scoop"

  • 1999 - The government unveils Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan, a long-term, broad-based policy approach in response to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

  • 1997 - Supreme Court Delgamuukw Case ruled that Aboriginal title to the land had never been extinguished, and oral history is accepted as valid

  • 1996 - Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples, or RCAP, issues its final report

  • 1996 – Gordon Residential School, the lasat federally run facility, closes in Saskatchewan

  • 1995 - Gustafsen Lake Standoff between RCMP & a small group of Aboriginal protestors lasts one month

  • 1990 - The Oka Crisis, (Mohawk people stand off against provincial and federal forces, to prevent a developer building a golf course on sacred land) focuses Canada's attention to Native land claims.

  • 1982 - R. v. Powley recognized and affirmed the existence of Metis as a distinct Aboriginal people with existing rights

  • 1979 - Policy of the federal government concerning Indian Health Services, states that there are no statutory or treaty rights to health

  • 1977 - The Canadian Human Rights Act is passed, but does not apply to Native people under the Indian Act

  • 1974 - Berger Report studies the potential adverse effects of building an oil pipeline through Native lands. The report advocated for Aboriginal rights and consultation.

  • 1974 - Native Women's Association of Canada was established

  • 1973 - In the Calder Case, the Supreme court held that Aboriginal rights to land did exist, citing the 1763 Royal Proclamation

  • 1972 - The National Indian Brotherhood (now the AFN) releases Indian Control of Indian Education

  • 1969 - The Liberal government introduces the "White Paper" on Indian Policy. Jean Cretien, Minister of INAC, agrees to First Nations' local control of their own education.

  • 1968 - Mary Two Axe Earley took her case for Indian status to the Royal Commission on the Status of Women

  • 1967 - The Royal Commission on the Status of Women calls for 167 recommendations to improve the lives of women in Canada

  • 1963 - Hawthorn studies on "Indians of Canada" paint dismissal picture of First Nations life

  • 1960 - Sixties Scoop: the mass removal of Aboriginal children from their families into the child welfare system

  • 1960 - All Aboriginal people win the right to vote in Federal elections, without losing their status

  • 1948 - Canada signs the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • 1941 - Inuit people have to carry "Eskimo Tags" or discs with their number on them

  • 1927 - Indian Act amended to make it illegal for First Nations to raise money or retain a lawyer, or gather to advance land claims, thereby blocking effective political court action

  • 1917 - Limited role to vote for women in Federal and Provincial elections. (Women must be British subjects and have relatives in the armed forces)

  • 1914 - Indians must have permission to appear in "aboriginal costume"

  • 1907 - Bryce report on TB epidemics in residential schools have up to 50% mortality rate.

  • 1904 - Memo released stating “It has never been the policy ... for the design of industrial schools to turn Indian pupils out to compete with whites.”

  • 1894 - Indian youth forced by law to attend school

  • 1889 - Peasant Farming policy implemented: Indians had to experience subsistence farming before they could "progress" to a more advanced stage of production. They were banned from purchasing labour-saving machinery and had to make their own tools.

  • 1885 - The Pass System prevents freedom of travel to and from many reserves. as a result, Indians couldn't leave without a pass from the Indian agent, and outsiders could no longer do business with most Indians.

  • 1885 - Anti-potlach laws enacted under the Indian Act. Responsibility for the education of children was given in large part to church-run residential schools.

  • 1884 - Widows and unmarried women can vote in Ontario municipal elections

  • 1884 - Indian Act amended to enforce that all Indian children aged 7 to 15 attend residential school. Children were forcibly taken from their families by priests, Indian agents, and police officers. Parents forced to send children to residential school or face jail time.

  • 1880 - Any Indian with a degree was automatically enfranchised

  • 1880 - The sale of agricultural produce by Indians is now prohibited

  • 1880 - Indian Commissioner argues that schools be moved greater distances from reserves in order to make visiting more difficult for parents and family

  • 1877 - The Indian Act is passed. The goal is the assimilation, and considered Indian people as wards of the state

  • 1871 - The first five numbered treaties establish advancing settlement across the Prairies, and the Canadian Pacific Railway.

  • 1869 - HBC sells back land to British Crown who gives it to new government of Canada. The great herds of bison on the plains are gone.

  • 1869 - Louis Riel leads the Metis armed resistance against the Federal government following the government's refusal to deal with Metis land claims

  • 1869 - Gradual Enfranchisement Act extended to require Indian to elect chief and council, but only by male voters and only a male chief, replacing the "irresponsible system" of traditional governance. Legislation passed that a status Indian woman who married a non-Indian man would cease to be an Indian.

  • 1867 - Canada becomes a country, and the British North America Act gives the federal government responsibility for Aboriginal people and their lands.

  • 1857 - Gradual Civilization Act- Mandatory enfranchisement of any male Indian over 21 with elementary education

  • 1836 - LG Bond Head toured Upper Canada and judging the Indian to be a dying race, took cessions of vast tracts of their land and promoted an isolated settlement on Manitoulin Island where they could live out their final days

  • 1835 - Influenza epidemic devastates Aboriginal population. Bison population still above 40 million on the plains.

  • 1828 - Darling Inquiry into Indian Conditions in Canada. Recommended the need for "Indians to be in fixed locations where they could be educated, converted to Christianity and transformed into farmers", and that the Indian Department must not be disbanded, or else Indian will starve or end up in jail

  • 1812 - First Nations are key contributors to defend against American invasion / Disease outbreaks greatly reduce beaver population

  • 1794 - Jay Treaty is passed. It allows peaceful trade between the US and Britain, guarantees free passage for Indigenous people in North America

  • 1763 - King George issues The Royal Proclamation establishing Aboriginal land rights that anger settlers

  • 1620 - The first residential schools open

  • 1613 - Two Row Wampum Treaty between the Haudenosaunee and Dutch, establishing a basis for Indigenous - settler relationships in North America

  • 1497 - Italian explorer John Cabot goes looking for the Orient, makes contact with Mik'maq on eastern coast.

The Timeline

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